Busbars are thin wires or ribbons which run down each cell and carry the electrons (current) through the solar module.
As PV cells have become more efficient they in turn generate more current thus over recent years most manufacturers have moved from 3 busbars to 5 or 6 busbars. A few manufactures such as LG Energy have gone one step further and developed multi-wire systems using up to 12 very thin round wires rather than flat busbars, explained in more detail below. The compromise is that the busbars actually shade part of the cell and so can slightly reduce performance if they are too large, so they need to be carefully designed. On the other hand multiple busbars provide lower resistance and a shorter path for the electrons to travel resulting in higher performance.
If a cell micro-crack occurs due to impact, heavy loads or people walking on panels, more busbars help reduce the chance of the crack/s developing into a hot spot as they provide alternative paths for current to flow.
The LG Neon 2 modules where the first to use 12 small round wire busbars which LG refer to as 'Cello' technology which stands for 'cell connection, electrically low loss, low stress and optical absorption enhancement'. It's a bit of a mouth full but basically the Cello multi-wire technology lowers electrical resistance and further increases efficiency.
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